It’s easiest to understand the concept of events by going through some examples.
For example, you might have a
scoring: entry in your config which watches
for an event called target1_hit, and when it sees it, it adds 1000 points
to the player’s score, like this:
scoring: target1_hit: score: 1000
What’s really happening behind the scenes here is MPF’s score system tells the event system, “Hey, if you see an event called target1_hit, let me know about it.” (This is called “registering a handler”, because the scoring system is registering with the event since that it can handle that event.)
Then later on, the switch for target 1 gets activated, and the shot controller posts the event called target1_hit. The Event Manager says, “Hey, I remember the scoring system wanted to know about that”, so it tells the scoring system that target1_hit was just posted and the scoring system can wake up and deal with it (adding the points, in this case).
So really there are two parts to the events system:
- Things that generate (post) events.
- Things that take action on (handle) events.
Let’s look at each of these.
Things that generate (post) events¶
There are hundreds of different things that post events in MPF (for all sorts of reasons). Just to pick some random examples of things that post events:
- A switch is hit
- A player variable changes
- A timer expires
- A mode stops or starts
- A new slide is shown on the display
- A ball drains
- A ball enters a ball device
- A new player’s turn starts
We actually have a giant list of all the events that are posted by everything in MPF. This is called the event_reference. (It’s also linked from the “Reference” section in the menu on the left of every page in the docs website since it’s so important.)
As you read through the rest of the documentation for various aspects of MPF,
you’ll see settings for things like
events_when_XX: with the “XX” being
For example, logic blocks have a setting called
events_when_hit: where you
can enter the name of an event. (In that case the name can be whatever you
events_when_hit: mpf_is_awesome, and then when that logic block
is hit, it will post the event mpf_is_awesome, and any other components that
are registered for that event will see it and take their respective action.
This means that while the event reference is useful because it shows all the built-in events, your machine will have lots of other events not on that list that you define.
Things that take action on (handle) events¶
The flip side of things that post events is things that taken action on (or “handle”) events. These are the things that watch for certain event names, and then when they see them, they take action.
Some random examples:
- The game mode will look for ball_drain events which it will handle by ending the current player’s ball.
- The scoring system might look for a shot hit event to add points to the player’s score.
- A jackpot mode might look for a ramp made event to play a show which will flash some lights and display a jackpot slide.
- A mode might look for the event which comes from shooting a ball into a ball lock to start a multiball mode.
As you’ll see as you read through the MPF documentation, there are two main ways (plus a lot of little ways) to make things happen when certain events are posted:
In the various config players (slide_player, led_player, show_player, etc.), you create entries based on event names.
For example, in a config file:
slide_player: mpf_is_awesome: my_slide
The above config will show the slide called “my_slide” on the display when the event mpf_is_awesome is posted. Of course this could be any event, including one from the Events Reference list or a custom event like we discussed above.
Also, a lot of things in MPF have
XX_events: settings, (the “XX” will be
some word) which is where you can event event names that cause that action to
happen. For example, you may have a drop target configured like this:
drop_targets: my_drop_target: switch: s_drop_target_1 reset_coil: c_drop_target_reset reset_events: mpf_is_awesome
In this case, when the event mpf_is_awesome is posted, that will cause that drop target to reset. Again, this is just one random example of the literally hundreds of things that can take action on events, and these events could be from the master events list or your own custom events.
The Event Manager¶
One of MPF’s internal core components is called the Event Manager. The event manager keeps track of the hundreds of handlers that have registered for different events, and it’s what other components contact when they want to post and event.
When an event is posted, the event manager contacts the handlers to let them know that they need to take action on their event.
Luckily the complexity of the event manager is hidden from you—all you have to know is that events are posted and handlers can act on them.
Finally, here are a few more random thoughts about events in MPF:
- There are lots and lots of events in MPF. Sometimes they come really fast—a dozen or more in a few milliseconds.
- Not every event will have a handler registered. If something posts an event and nothing is registered to handle it, so be it!
- Multiple handlers can be registered for the same event. In this case the event manager just notifies the handlers one-by-one.
- Event handlers are constantly added and removed throughout the lifecycle of a game. (For example, when a mode starts, all sorts of handlers are registered to watch for things that mode needs, and when the mode ends, those handlers are removed.)
- Event names are not case sensitive. (They’re technically all converted to lowercase internally.)